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WSU/Pend Oreille Extension introduced the Sense of Place series in 1999, with a focus on place-based stewardship education. Since 2001, a partnership with the Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department (KNRD) has supported this newsletter and allowed us to expand class offerings through EPA funding. Further staff support comes through Renewable Resources Extension Act (RREA). Many thanks to our partners and to you, our readers, for your continued enthusiasm for "digging" into the natural history and culture of this part of the world.

The Smell of Home


by Carol Mack • WSU/Pend Oreille County Extension

Somewhere in the brain, smell and memory have a close connection. A whiff of a particular something can take any of us back to childhood for a brief second. But imagine a compulsion to follow that smell for days, always moving towards it in ever-increasing concentrations...back to home.

A trout's sense of smell is estimated to be 500 to 800 times more acute than that of a human. Fish "smell" by drawing in water through a front opening or nare. The water passes through the nasal sac inside the snout where the olfactory gland can detect odors in concentrations of just a few parts per million.

One function of this amazing sensitivity appears to be to lead the fish home when it comes time to reproduce. Adfluvial populations of trout spend most of their life in rivers or lakes, moving to streams only to mate and spawn. Soon after fish hatch from eggs, the smell of their natal creek is imprinted on the young fry. That particular home smell remains as a memory that lasts for as many years as it takes to reach sexual maturity.

Fisheries biologists can manipulate this imprinting to help reintroduce populations into a particular stream. In the 1990's, hatchery-raised Kokanee fry were imprinted at the crucial moment with a synthetic chemical before being released into Lake Roosevelt to grow to maturity. Several years later during spawning time, the same chemical was dripped in the target creek to attract those adults to their new home. More commonly, biologists use in-stream incubators to imprint the desired smell onto the fish's memory.

While research is ongoing as to what particular set of chemicals evoke "home" for a fish, the most common theory is that it is the rocks, the vegetation, and other aquatic organisms that create the scent to which the fish return. Each stream's odor is unique because each watershed that feeds it is unique. Imagine a row of glasses, each filled with water from a different Pend Oreille River tributary. Our native trout species could identify the source of each glass blindfolded, and perhaps tell us a bit about how our watershed management is affecting the flavor and smell. Fish notice when fertilizers and weed-killers are washed into creeks, or motor oil, or chemical de-icers, or (ugh) malfunctioning septic systems. With our weak human sense of smell, we can only imagine the degree of sensory input a fish receives from its surroundings. But imagining it may encourage us to work more diligently to "leave no trace" while recreating, to plant (or protect) streamside vegetation, and to restore functioning wetland areas. We may not smell the results ourselves, but for a fish... the nose knows.

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